Abstract: Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder of the endocrine system characterized by an increase in blood glucose level. Several factors such as pancreatic damage, oxidative stress, infection, genetic factor, obesity, liver dysfunction play a vital role in the pathogenesis of diabetes which further leads to serious diabetic complications. The diabetic wound is one such complication where the wound formation occurs, especially due to pressure and its healing process is disrupted due to factors such as hyperglycemia, neuropathy, nephropathy, peripheral vascular disease, reduction of blood flow, atherosclerosis, impaired fibroblast. Process of wound healing is delayed due to different abnormalities like alteration in nitric oxide level, increase in aldose reductase, sorbitol and fructose. Therefore, diabetic wound requires more time to heal as compared to a normal wound. Healing time is delayed in diabetic wound due to many factors such as stress, decreased oxygenation supply, infection, decreased blood flow, impaired proliferation and migration rate, impaired growth factor production, impaired keratinocytes proliferation and migration, and altered vascular endothelial mediators. The current treatment for diabetic wound includes wound patches, oxygenation therapy, hydrogel patches, gene therapy, laser therapy, and stem cell therapy. Medications with phytoconstituents are also one way to manage the diabetic wound, but it is not more effective for quick healing. The objective of this review is to understand the potential of various management options which are available for diabetic wound, with a special focus on biological cells.
Journal: Current Diabetes Review
Keywords: Angiogenesis; Diabetic wound; Growth factors; Stem cells; Wound healing