Type 1 Diabetes Research

A Step Into Freedom From T1DM

About Me

Hello

I amShivani Desai

Type 1 diabetes researcher and enthusiast

Welcome to T1DM.org! It is a platform which consolidates my work about type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and its management. This forum invites an open interaction from national and international experts to manage type 1 diabetes, share their knowledge and collaborate to work towards freedom from this painful disease.

This forum includes the papers published by the author in the journals of repute. These papers primarily involve the content related to the etiology and pathophysiology of T1DM, the application of mesenchymal stem cells to manage T1DM and improve the quality of life in patients, and the correlation of diabetes with hepatic dysfunctions. It also includes papers related to the immunological aspects in the journey to prevent and reverse the disease.

With more interaction and collaborations, we can bring an end to T1DM and give a better life to the children who are at risk to develop this immensely agonising disease.

2 Patents

Diabetec foot ulcer (DFU) treatment using stem cell, Wound healing

26 Publications

T1DM vaccine research, Regenerative medicine research, 15 under process

10 Awards

'Woman Innovator' National Award 2022 and others, for research in T1DM

Journey So Far

2016

July

Inception of Idea

Development of vaccine to prevent and reverse type 1 diabetes mellitus

2018

September

t1dm.org Launched

Platform launched to consolidate research work about type 1 diabetes and its management

t1dm.org invites an open interaction from national and international experts to manage type 1 diabetes, share their knowledge and collaborate to work towards freedom from this painful disease

2020

June

Research Publication

First review paper on type 1 diabetes mellitus “Mapping of type 1 diabetes mellitus” published in Current Diabetes Reviews

2021

December

Preclinical Model Development

Preclinical model development project using Swiss albino mice started to study type 1 diabetes

2022

April

Phase 1 Preclinical Study

Stability test for vaccine formula conducted
Allergy test and safety study for vaccine formula conducted
Efficacy study of vaccine formula to prevent and reverse type 1 diabetes mellitus

My Latest Publications

Showing posts with label Review. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Review. Show all posts

[Review Paper] Nanotechnology: Newer Approach in Insulin Therapy

Abstract: Insulin is a peptide hormone released by pancreatic beta cells. An autoimmune reaction in diabetes mellitus type 1 causes the beta cells to die, preventing insulin from being produced or released into the bloodstream which impacts 30 million people globally and is linked to shortened lifespan due to acute and chronic repercussions. Insulin therapy aims to replicate normal pancreatic insulin secretion, which includes low levels of insulin that are always present to support basic metabolism, as well as the two-phase secretion of additional insulin in response to high blood sugar - an initial spike in secreted insulin, followed by an extended period of continued insulin secretion. This is performed by combining various insulin formulations that work at varying rates and for different lengths of time. Since the beginning of human insulin use, several advances in insulin formulations have been made to help meet these aims as much as possible, resulting in improved glycaemic control while limiting hypoglycaemia. In this review, we looked at devices used by patients with type 1 diabetes, such as insulin pumps, continuous glucose monitors, and, more recently, systems that combine a pump with a monitor for algorithm-driven insulin administration automation. We intend to provide insight into supplementary therapies and nanotechnology employed in insulin therapy as a result of our review. 


Journal: Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology 

Keywords: Basal Bolus Insulin; Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM); Insulin Pump Therapy; Insulin glargine U300; Nanotechnology 

[Review Paper] Nanobiotechnology-Modified Cellular and Molecular Therapy as a Novel Approach for Autoimmune Diabetes Management

Abstract: Several cellular and molecular therapies such as stem cell therapy, cell replacement therapy, gene modification therapy and tolerance induction therapy have been researched to procure a permanent cure for Type 1 Diabetes. However, due to the induction of undesirable side effects, their clinical utility is questionable. These anti-diabetic therapies can be modified with nanotechnological tools for reducing adverse effects by selectively targeting genes and/or receptors involved directly or indirectly in diabetes pathogenesis such as the glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor, epidermal growth factor receptor, human leukocyte antigen [HLA] gene, miRNA gene and hepatocyte growth factor [HGF] gene. This paper will review the utilities of nanotechnology in stem cell therapy, cell replacement therapy, beta-cell proliferation strategies, immune tolerance induction strategies and gene therapy for type 1 diabetes management.


Journal: Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology

Keywords: Autoimmunity; Immunotherapy; Nanocarriers; Stem cell; Tolerance; Type 1 diabetes

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[Review Paper] Managing Type 1 Diabetes from Gynecological Waste: Trash to Treasure

Abstract: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), an autoimmune disease, involves the destruction of pancreatic β cells. β cells maintain glucose homeostasis by identifying blood glucose and accordingly releasing insulin in order to maintain normal physiologic glucose levels. Human umbilical cord blood (hUCB) cells posture a lesser risk of viral contamination as there is low placental transmission during prenatal life. Additionally, they have advantages such as non-invasive harvest procedure gynaecological waste, low immunogenicity, easy expansion in-vitro, and easy ethical access as compared to deriving stem cells from other sources. According to the published preclinical data infusion of autologous cord blood cells is considered to be safe as they are non-antigenic. Depending on the degree of differentiation, the ability to regenerate themselves, and the origin of many stem cell types can be differentiated. The application of stem cells (SCs) embraces the great potential for the management of T1DM due to their regenerative capabilities and their promising immunological characteristics. Due to lesser ethical complications and easy procedures of isolation, hUCB has become a precious medical intervention.

Journal: Current Diabetes Review

Keywords: Umbilical cord blood stem cells; glucose homeostasis; gynecological waste; immunogenicity; plasticity; type 1 diabetes mellitus.

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[Review Paper] Managing Type 1 Diabetes from Gynecological Waste: Trash to Treasure


Abstract
: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), an autoimmune disease, involves destruction of pancreatic β cells. β cells maintains glucose homeostasis by identifying blood glucose and accordingly releasing insulin in order to maintain normal physiologic glucose levels. Human umbilical cord blood (hUCB) cells posture a lesser risk of viral contamination as there is low placental transmission during prenatal life. Additionally, they have advantages such as non-invasive harvest procedure gynecological waste, low immunogenicity, easy expansion in-vitro, and easy ethical access as compared to deriving stem cells from other sources. According to the published preclinical data infusion of autologous cord blood cells is considered to be safe as they are non-antigenic. Depending on the degree of differentiation, the ability to regenerate themselves, and the origin of many stem cell types can be differentiated. The application of stem cells (SCs) embraces great potential for the management of T1DM due to their regenerative capabilities and their promising immunological characteristics. Due to lesser ethical complications and easy procedures of isolation, hUCB has become a precious medical intervention.

Journal: Current Diabetes Review

Keywords: Umbilical cord blood stem cells; glucose homeostasis; gynecological waste; immunogenicity; plasticity; type 1 diabetes mellitus.

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[Review Paper] Is Type 1 Diabetes Preventable: Population Perspective


Survey Objective: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is growing in incidence over a few years. The objective of this short survey is to report the viewpoint of the general population about their belief if type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) can be prevented. This will further motivate the researchers to accelerate their research to develop vaccines for the prevention and reversal of T1DM.

Methods: A survey was put up on LinkedIn asking a single question “Type 1 diabetes is preventable: Agree or disagree”. The poll was kept open for a period of two weeks and 220 votes were obtained from people belonging to the healthcare sector (n=168) as well as other professions (n=52).

Results: Out of 220 votes, 64% of people agree that T1DM is preventable and the remaining 36% disagree.

Conclusions: Results indicate that majority of people think that T1DM is preventable. Though there is no preventive vaccine at present, there is a hope to formulate such a vaccine that can prevent this autoimmune diabetes.

Journal: High Technology Letters

Keywords: Type 1 diabetes mellitus, Prevention, Perspective, Survey

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[Review Paper] Type 1 Diabetes and Covid-19: Managing the Difficult Duo


Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has stimulated health concerns globally, especially in diabetes where it has been accompanied by severe outcomes.

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chief worry; though, there are a considerable population of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) also, that too with incomparable concerns during the current COVID-19 pandemic. Some children experience significant complications related to this disease and paediatric deaths have also been reported.

This article describes some key points related to the complications and management of concomitant T1DM and COVID-19.

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Source: Dr. D. Y. Patil Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences & Research Blog

Keywords: Blood Glucose, Diabetes, COVID-19, Insulin    

[Review Paper] Polyvaccine - Joining The Links In The Cascade Of Type 1 Diabetes


Abstract: The incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), an autoimmune disorder, has ascended considerably with around 98,200 and 15,900 incidents in children below 15 years of age, globally and in India, respectively. This is typically due to environmental changes leading to genetic modifications. Also, T1DM encompasses the presence of autoantigens and many other etiologies which can be targeted by proper immunization. In this paper, we consciously discuss and collate various candidate triggers of islet autoimmunity and other factors expected to promote the progression of T1DM. This paper bridges all the mechanisms caused by these factors and links them with each other. We have also highlighted the novel coronavirus as a trigger for T1DM. Finally, we suggest that an amalgamated model of polyvaccine can batter the condition by inducing protection against various triggers of T1DM.

Journal: Clinical and Experimental Vaccine Research 

Keywords: Type 1 diabetes mellitus; Viruses; Coronavirus; Cow's milk; Hybrid insulin peptides; Vaccines

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[Review Paper] Stem Cells - A Golden Therapy for Diabetic Wound



Abstract: Diabetes mellitus is the 7th leading cause of death worldwide. Diabetes can affect the organ systems and lead to a serious complication, majorly categorized as macrovascular complications, microvascular complications, and diabetic wound. Foot ulcer develops in 15-25% diabetic patient. In diabetic wound, there is impairment in growth factor, neuropeptide, matrix metalloproteinases, angiogenesis, immune system. Many approaches are being experimented to manage this major complication of the diabetic foot, but unfortunately with lesser success rate. A stem cell is an upcoming field which is being explored in the world of diabetes. Hence, this review is designed to understand the basic pathogenesis and complications of types of diabetes and the role of stem cells in the diabetic wound and the benefits related to it.

Journal: Current Diabetes Reviews 

Keywords: Angiogenesis; Diabetes mellitus; Diabetic complications; Foot ulcer; Stem cells

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[Review Paper] Antibiotics - A Boon Or Tragedy For Type 1 Diabetes?



Abstract: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), an autoimmune disease, leads to obliteration of
pancreatic β-cells, and hence causes insufficient production of insulin. With many other etiological factors, antibiotic use and gut microbiota have a significant role to play in its development. The gut microbiota interacts with the cells involved in innate immunity and has a significant role in determining the immune system. Several factors such as mode of birth, infections, diet, and medication including antibiotics influence the microbiota composition. Alterations and manipulation of microbiota in animal models have been shown to affect the onset and incidence of diseases having multifactorial etiology, like T1DM. Hence, the microbiota is an integral part that influences the innate immune cells and this microbiota is influenced by the use of antibiotics. This review discusses the studies in relation to microbiota and antibiotic use with reference to T1DM.

Journal: Pharmaceutical Resonance 

Keywords: Type 1 diabetes mellitus; Antibiotics; Microbiota; Innate immunity

[Review Paper] Wound With Diabetes - Present Scenario And Future



Abstract: Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder of the endocrine system characterized by an increase in blood glucose levels. Several factors such as pancreatic damage, oxidative stress, infection, genetic factor, obesity, liver dysfunction play a vital role in the pathogenesis of diabetes which further leads to serious diabetic complications. The diabetic wound is one such complication where wound formation occurs, especially due to pressure and its healing process is disrupted due to factors such as hyperglycemia, neuropathy, nephropathy, peripheral vascular disease, reduction of blood flow, atherosclerosis, impaired fibroblast. The process of wound healing is delayed due to different abnormalities like alteration in nitric oxide level, increase in aldose reductase, sorbitol and fructose. Therefore, a diabetic wound requires more time to heal as compared to a normal wound. Healing time is delayed in diabetic wounds due to many factors such as stress, decreased oxygenation supply, infection, decreased blood flow, impaired proliferation and migration rate, impaired growth factor production, impaired keratinocytes proliferation and migration, and altered vascular endothelial mediators. The current treatment for diabetic wounds includes wound patches, oxygenation therapy, hydrogel patches, gene therapy, laser therapy, and stem cell therapy. Medications with phytoconstituents are also one way to manage the diabetic wound, but it is not more effective for quick healing. The objective of this review is to understand the potential of various management options which are available for diabetic wounds, with a special focus on biological cells.

Journal: Current Diabetes Review

Keywords: Angiogenesis; Diabetic wound; Growth factors; Stem cells; Wound healing

[Review Paper] Treat Liver To Beat Diabetes



Abstract: Management of Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM) with existing strategies of lifestyle and pharmaceutical interventions has gained limited success as evidenced by its uncontrolled progression. Two key organs which are involved in the pathophysiology of T2DM are the liver and pancreas, both are the derivatives of endoderm with a common precursor. In the invertebrates, the hepatopancreas performs the function of both the liver and pancreas. It is known that derangement in glycolysis, neoglucogenesis, and glycogenolysis lead to hyperglycemia in T2DM although insulin levels are high. Several studies have reported the implication of abnormal liver function in the development of metabolic syndrome i.e. T2DM. Partial hepatectomy has been shown to improve glycemic status in animal models of diabetes. This could be because the liver and pancreas share the same regenerating factors. These pieces of evidence suggest that abnormal liver status can impair pancreatic beta-cell function and survival along with peripheral insulin resistance. We, therefore, hypothesize that restoring deranged liver functions may aid in the better control and management of T2DM. If found true, it may shift the current intervention strategy towards the liver rather than the pancreas in the treatment of T2DM.

Journal: Medical Hypotheses

Keywords: Type 2 Diabetes, Liver dysfunction, Pancreas, Intra-organ communication
 

[Review Paper] Vaccines For Type 1 Diabetes: Prevention Or Reversal?



Abstract: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease that leads to the destruction of pancreatic β-cells, thereby causing insufficient insulin production. Globally, around 98, 200 children and adolescents below 15 years of age and almost 128,900 subjects below 20 years of age develop T1DM annually, along with severe complications deteriorating their quality of life. In India alone, around 15,900 incident cases below 15 years have been reported annually. Hence, its prevention and reversal are significant. Unlike other chronic diseases, T1DM involves the presence of various autoantigens which can be targeted by proper immunisation. The development of reliable immuno-regulatory surrogate markers would be of great benefit. Vaccines can be one of such strategies in the journey to prevent T1DM. It would not only benefit greatly to reduce the sufferings caused due to diabetic complications but could also help to reverse T1DM, by modulating the immunological autoantigenic reactions and preventing further degradation of pancreatic β-cells. This review collates a wide range of information related to the vaccine studies conducted in animal and human models to prevent and reverse T1DM. 

Journal: Current Diabetes Reviews 

Keywords: Antigen vaccine; BCG vaccine; Immunomodulation; Micro-organisms; Type 1 diabetes mellitus; Vaccine 

[Review Paper] A Peripheral Concept On Aetiology Of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus


Abstract: Diabetes mellitus is a common metabolic disorder affecting a wide range of populations worldwide. There are many types of diabetes mellitus, one of which is type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). It is an autoimmune disorder caused in about 97,700 children in India and 490,000 children globally. Many etiological factors contribute to this disease. This review article is a collage of etiological factors causing T1DM. A better understanding of aetiology is significant for the prevention and management of the disease.

Journal: Pharmaceutical Resonance 

Keywords: Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus; Etiology; Autoantibodies; Extracellular matrix; Coxsackievirus B virus

[Review Paper] Mapping Of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus


Abstract: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), an autoimmune disorder, is becoming widespread with approximately 97,700 children in India and 490,000 children worldwide affected. There are various etiological factors contributing to the expansion of its incidence in different geographical locations. Hence, the articles published in reputed journals were studies and data was collected for analyzing the aetiology and prevention of T1DM. It has been observed that hybrid insulin peptides act as key antigens for the autoreactive T cells and causes loss of self-tolerance in humans. The association of coxsackievirus B has been observed with the onset of T1DM. Accurate identification of the trigger can lead to the development of appropriate preventive measures. It can become a base for advanced studies to prevent T1DM in humans. This review will highlight the causes and some preventive actions which can be considered to eliminate T1DM.

Journal: Current Diabetes Reviews

Keywords: Type 1 diabetes mellitus; coxsackievirus B virus; etiology; pathogenesis; prevention

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SHIVANI DESAI
+91-20-4930-0148
Pune, India