Type 1 Diabetes Research

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Wednesday, 28 September 2022

[Review Paper] Nanotechnology: Newer Approach in Insulin Therapy
Abstract: Insulin is a peptide hormone released by pancreatic beta cells. An autoimmune reaction in diabetes mellitus type 1 causes the beta cells to die, preventing insulin from being produced or released into the bloodstream which impacts 30 million people globally and is linked to shortened lifespan due to acute and chronic repercussions. Insulin therapy aims to replicate normal pancreatic insulin secretion, which includes low levels of insulin that are always present to support basic metabolism, as well as the two-phase secretion of additional insulin in response to high blood sugar - an initial spike in secreted insulin, followed by an extended period of continued insulin secretion. This is performed by combining various insulin formulations that work at varying rates and for different lengths of time. Since the beginning of human insulin use, several advances in insulin formulations have been made to help meet these aims as much as possible, resulting in improved glycaemic control while limiting hypoglycaemia. In this review, we looked at devices used by patients with type 1 diabetes, such as insulin pumps, continuous glucose monitors, and, more recently, systems that combine a pump with a monitor for algorithm-driven insulin administration automation. We intend to provide insight into supplementary therapies and nanotechnology employed in insulin therapy as a result of our review. 

Journal: Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology 

Keywords: Basal Bolus Insulin; Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM); Insulin Pump Therapy; Insulin glargine U300; Nanotechnology 

Dr Shivani Desai is a clinical pharmacist, an experienced clinical researcher and academician. She leads preclinical and clinical projects at Serum Institute of India, Pune, India. She expertises in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) and is currently researching its prevention and reversal.


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