[Research Paper] Therapeutic Potential of Metformin-preconditioned Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Pancreatic Regeneration

Background: Diabetes occurs due to insulin deficiency or less insulin. To manage this condition, insulin administration as well as increased insulin sensitivity is required, but exogeneous insulin cannot replace the sensitive and gentle regulation of blood glucose levels same as β cells of healthy individuals. By considering the ability of regeneration and differentiation of stem cells, the current study planned to evaluate the effect of metformin preconditioned buccal fat pad (BFP) derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes mellitus in Wistar rats.

Materials & methods: The disease condition was established using a diabetes-inducing agent STZ in Wistar rats. Then, the animals were grouped into disease control, blank, and test groups. Only the test group received the metformin-preconditioned cells. The total study period for this experiment was 33 days. During this period, the animals were monitored twice weekly for blood glucose level, body weight, and food-water intake. At the end of 33 days, the biochemical estimations for serum insulin level and pancreatic insulin level were performed. Also, histopathology of the pancreas, liver, and skeletal muscle was performed.

Results: The test groups showed a decline in the blood glucose level and an increase in the serum pancreatic insulin level as compared to the disease group. No significant change in food and water intake was observed within the three groups, while body weight was significantly reduced in the test group when compared with the blank group. Still, the life span was increased when compared with the disease group.

Conclusion: In the present study, we concluded that metformin preconditioned buccal fat pad-derived mesenchymal stem cells have the ability to regenerate damaged pancreatic β cells and have antidiabetic activity, and this therapy is a better choice for future research.

Journal: Current Drug Discovery Technologies

Keywords: Biological solution; Diabetes mellitus; Metformin; Pancreatic regeneration; Streptozotocin model; preconditioned buccal fat pad derived mesenchymal stem cells

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