A Step Into Freedom From Type 1 Diabetes


T1DM.org is a platform which consolidates the author’s work about type 1 diabetes and its management. This forum invites an open interaction from national and international experts to manage type 1 diabetes, share their knowledge and collaborate to work towards freedom from this painful disease.

This forum only includes the papers published by the author in the journals of repute at the moment. These papers primarily involve the content related to the etiology and pathophysiology of T1DM, application of mesenchymal stem cells to manage T1DM and improve the quality of life in patients, and about the correlation of diabetes with hepatic dysfunctions. However, it will soon come up with the papers related to the immunomodulatory aspects in the journey to prevent and reverse the disease.

With more interaction and collaborations, we can bring an end to T1DM and give a better life to the children who are at risk to develop this immensely agonising disease.


1. In-vitro Study

Test the immunological reactions

2. Preclinical Study

Test the immunological responses in animal model

3. Formulation

Prepare a potential formulation candidate based on results and tests in in-vivo

4. Clinical Study

Clinical evaluation of the potential formation for T1DM
Showing posts with label Type 2 Diabetes. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Type 2 Diabetes. Show all posts

[Review Paper] Type 1 Diabetes and Covid-19: Managing the Difficult Duo

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has stimulated health concerns globally, especially in diabetes where it has been accompanied by severe outcomes.

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chief worry; though, there are a considerable population of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) also, that too with incomparable concerns during the current COVID-19 pandemic. Some children experience significant complications related to this disease and paediatric deaths have also been reported.

This article describes some key points related to the complications and management of concomitant T1DM and COVID-19.

A Century-long Journey of Type 1 Diabetes Management: From Insulin to …???

Can you answer this question mark in the title? What is the next product coming in the market for reversing or managing type 1 diabetes?

The history of type 1 diabetes (T1DM) is a longstanding story. However, its management became possible only after the discovery of insulin by Frederick Banting and Charles Best in 1921. With this, scientists started developing the hopes to cure this disease. Unfortunately, this goal is yet to be accomplished. This article gives a tour of the various advancements in managing T1DM and how still there is no cure for this perilous disease.
Insulin: The First Weapon to Fight T1DM

The discovery of insulin was not by chance, it was a very well-thought science. The cascade goes as follows:

1889: Joseph von Mering and Oskar Minkowski observed that removing the pancreas from dogs developed diabetes in them, followed by their death shortly.

1910: Sir Edward Albert Sharpey-Schafer projected that the lack of a specific chemical produced by the pancreas is responsible for the development of diabetes. He then named it 'insulin'.

1921: Frederick Banting and Charles Best extracted the pancreatic islet cells from healthy dogs and presented them into the dogs with diabetes which reversed the diabetic condition. This was a stepping stone towards the management of T1DM by the discovery of the hormone, insulin.

Then with the help of two other scientists, then purified insulin extracted from the cow’s pancreas and marked the first treatment option for diabetes.

Finally, in January 1922, this research was translated to humans when 14-year-old Leonard Thompson received an insulin injection to treat his diabetes. This helped him survive for 13 more years and eventually, he died of pneumonia.

And the journey continues this way…

1930s: Introduction of Insulins with longer duration of action.

1936: Sir Harold Percival Himsworth published his research which helped to understand the difference between type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes.

1978: Development of Humulin, the first human-based insulin, identical to human insulin in structure.

1986: Insulin pen (prefilled syringes) delivery system was available. This lead to a safe and convenient way to deliver the required dose of insulin.

1990s: Invention of external insulin pumps, which could provide healthier results, more flexibility, and easier treatment management.

1996: Lispro, the first short-acting insulin (onset of action = 15 minutes and duration of action = 2-4 hours), entered the market.

Where We Are Today

Insulin is still the only therapy used to manage type 1 diabetes. Islet transplant is also considered; however, it has to be accompanied with immunosuppressant drugs and still there is difficulty in maintenance of insulin independence; plus, Cadaveric islet transplantation needs multiple donors and is non-affordable to the common man. Extensive research is going on for immune-related therapies; unfortunately, with nothing in the market yet for patient us.

We are working towards a permanent solution to prevent and reverse type 1 diabetes and looking forward to eradicating this disease.

Type 1 to Type None!

  1. Vecchio I, Tornali C, Bragazzi NL, Martini M. The Discovery of Insulin: An Important Milestone in the History of Medicine. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2018; 9:613.
  2. Subramanian S, Baidal D, Skyler JS, Hirsch IB. The Management of Type 1 Diabetes. [Updated 2016 Nov 16]. In: Feingold KR, Anawalt B, Boyce A, et al., editors. Endotext [Internet]. South Dartmouth (MA): MDText.com, Inc.; 2000-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK279114/
  3. Raz I., Ziegler A.G., Linn T. et al. Treatment of Recent-Onset Type 1 Diabetic Patients With DiaPep277: Results of a Double-Blind, Placebo Controlled, Randomized Phase 3 Trial. Diabetes Care. 2014; 37:1392-1400.
  4. Kühtreiber W.M., Tran L., Kim T. et al. Long-term reduction in hyperglycemia in advanced type 1 diabetes: the value of induced aerobic glycolysis with BCG vaccinations. npj Vaccines. 2018; 23:1-14.

[Review Paper] Treat Liver To Beat Diabetes

Abstract: Management of Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM) with existing strategies of lifestyle and pharmaceutical interventions has gained limited success as evidenced by its uncontrolled progression. Two key organs which are involved in the pathophysiology of T2DM are liver and pancreas, both are the derivatives of endoderm with a common precursor. In the invertebrates, hepatopancreas performs the function of both liver and pancreas. It is known that derangement in glycolysis, neoglucogenesis, and glycogenolysis lead to hyperglycemia in T2DM although insulin levels are high. Several studies have reported the implication of abnormal liver function in the development of metabolic syndrome i.e. T2DM. Partial hepatectomy has been shown to improve glycemic status in animal models of diabetes. This could be because liver and pancreas share the same regenerating factors. These evidences suggest that abnormal liver status can impair pancreatic beta-cell function and survival along with peripheral insulin resistance. We, therefore, hypothesize that restoring deranged liver functions may aid in the better control and management of T2DM. If found true, it may shift the current intervention strategy towards liver rather than pancreas in the treatment of T2DM.

Journal: Medical Hypotheses

Keywords: Type 2 Diabetes, Liver dysfunction, Pancreas, Intra-organ communication

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Dr Shivani Desai
Pune, India