Type 1 Diabetes Research

A Step Into Freedom From T1DM

About Me


I amShivani Desai

Type 1 diabetes researcher and enthusiast

Welcome to T1DM.org! It is a platform which consolidates my work about type 1 diabetes and its management. This forum invites an open interaction from national and international experts to manage type 1 diabetes, share their knowledge and collaborate to work towards freedom from this painful disease.

This forum only includes the papers published by the author in the journals of repute at the moment. These papers primarily involve the content related to the etiology and pathophysiology of T1DM, the application of mesenchymal stem cells to manage T1DM and improve the quality of life in patients, and the correlation of diabetes with hepatic dysfunctions. However, it will soon come up with papers related to the immunomodulatory aspects in the journey to prevent and reverse the disease.

With more interaction and collaborations, we can bring an end to T1DM and give a better life to the children who are at risk to develop this immensely agonising disease.

2 Patents

Diabetec foot ulcer (DFU) treatment using stem cell, Wound healing

26 Publications

T1DM vaccine research, Regenerative medicine research, 15 under process

10 Awards

'Woman Innovator' National Award 2022 and others, for research in T1DM

Journey So Far



Inception of Idea

Development of vaccine to prevent and reverse type 1 diabetes mellitus



t1dm.org Launched

Platform launched to consolidate research work about type 1 diabetes and its management

t1dm.org invites an open interaction from national and international experts to manage type 1 diabetes, share their knowledge and collaborate to work towards freedom from this painful disease



Research Publication

First review paper on type 1 diabetes mellitus “Mapping of type 1 diabetes mellitus” published in Current Diabetes Reviews



Preclinical Model Development

Preclinical model development project using Swiss albino mice started to study type 1 diabetes



Phase 1 Preclinical Study

Stability test for vaccine formula conducted
Allergy test and safety study for vaccine formula conducted
Efficacy study of vaccine formula to prevent and reverse type 1 diabetes mellitus

My Latest Publications

[Review Paper] Managing Type 1 Diabetes from Gynecological Waste: Trash to Treasure

: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), an autoimmune disease, involves destruction of pancreatic β cells. β cells maintains glucose homeostasis by identifying blood glucose and accordingly releasing insulin in order to maintain normal physiologic glucose levels. Human umbilical cord blood (hUCB) cells posture a lesser risk of viral contamination as there is low placental transmission during prenatal life. Additionally, they have advantages such as non-invasive harvest procedure gynecological waste, low immunogenicity, easy expansion in-vitro, and easy ethical access as compared to deriving stem cells from other sources. According to the published preclinical data infusion of autologous cord blood cells is considered to be safe as they are non-antigenic. Depending on the degree of differentiation, the ability to regenerate themselves, and the origin of many stem cell types can be differentiated. The application of stem cells (SCs) embraces great potential for the management of T1DM due to their regenerative capabilities and their promising immunological characteristics. Due to lesser ethical complications and easy procedures of isolation, hUCB has become a precious medical intervention.

Journal: Current Diabetes Review

Keywords: Umbilical cord blood stem cells; glucose homeostasis; gynecological waste; immunogenicity; plasticity; type 1 diabetes mellitus.

Read Full Review Paper

[Video] Pathophysiology and Pharmacology of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

I recently delivered a lecture at Masters Certificate Course in Diabetic Pharmacotherapy (MCCDP), hosted by CliMed Research Solutions on the topic of 'Pathophysiology and Pharmacology of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus'. Special thanks to Dr Ajit Singh for this opportunity! 

Understanding the disease's pathophysiology can help in managing it better. The following video is a deep dive into this approach. 

For more videos and discussions on T1DM, visit: https://www.t1dm.org

For queries or feedback, email info@t1dm.org or simply leave a comment below.

[Editorial] Th1-Th2 Seesaw: An Essential Aspect in Type 1 Diabetes

Balanced Th1 and Th2 cytokines are significantly associated to maintain the immunological ecosystem in human physiology. Any imbalance can lead to either autoimmune diseases or immunodeficient diseases. This editorial highlights the immunological mechanism involved in type 1 diabetes (T1DM).

Journal: Current Diabetes Reviews

Keywords: Cytokines; T1D; T2D; anti-inflammatory; immunological processes; proinflammatory

Read Full Editorial

[Video] The Insulin Journey

The history of insulin is a 100 years story. This marvel has become a blessing for Type 1 Diabetic Mellitus (T1DM) patients. This video describes the complete journey of insulin from even before its scientific discovery. 

Related article: A Century-Long Journey Of Type 1 Diabetes Management: From Insulin To…??

For more videos and discussions on T1DM, visit: https://www.t1dm.org

For queries or feedback, email info@t1dm.org or simply leave a comment below.

[Video] Ongoing Research on Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Insulin is the only available treatment for Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) for over a century now. Globally, scientists are working on different avenues to find a permanent cure for T1DM. Clinical trials are under process, but with little success so far. So where are we today?

A short video:

For more publications and discussions on T1DM, visit: https://www.t1dm.org 

 For queries or feedback, email info@t1dm.org or simply leave a comment below.

[Video] What is Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus?

The history of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a longstanding story and during this 'Diabetes Month', we have designed this platform to discuss various aspects of this disease. This video is an introduction to T1DM on the occasion of Diabetes Day 2021.

For more videos and publications on T1DM, visit www.t1dm.org.

For queries or feedback, email info@t1dm.org or simply leave a comment below.

Seesaw of Th1 and Th2 in Autoimmune Disorders

Autoimmune diseases stem from imbalances within the functioning of the patient’s immune system. This imbalance is witnessed due to many factors, such as stress, malnutrition, vitamin and mineral deficiencies, inappropriate gut flora, and allergies. These are the common etiologies that are considered while diagnosing any autoimmune disease. 

However, this article describes the basic explanation about the mechanism of T-helper (Th) cells disturbing the immune system, as well as the factors causing this imbalance.

What are Th1 and Th2?

T-helper cells (Th) are an important part of the immune system. They are lymphocytes that recognize foreign pathogens or normal tissues in autoimmune diseases. Cytokines are produced as a response. These Th cells are divided into subgroups:



Involved in “cell-mediated” immunity

Involved in “humoral-mediated” immunity

Usually deals with infections by viruses and certain bacteria

Usually deals with infections by bacteria, toxins, and allergens

Body’s first line of defense against pathogens that get inside our cells

Stimulating the production of antibodies in response to extracellular pathogens (those found in blood or other body fluids)

Tend to be pro-inflammatory

Tend to be anti-inflammatory

Involved in the development of organ-specific autoimmune disease

Involved in systemic autoimmune disease and other chronic conditions

In a well-functioning immune system, both groups of these T helper cells work together to keep the system balanced. One side might become more active to eradicate a threat, then settling back to a balanced level. 

Effect of Th Responses in Autoimmune Disease

An alteration in Th1-Th2 balance causes various autoimmune diseases. This is described in the figure.

When the Th1 cells of the immune system are overactive, they can suppress the activity of Th2 and vice versa. This can be problematic, because these two components of the immune system function in a delicately balanced relationship. In the case of autoimmune disease, an imbalance can further the attack on healthy tissue, thereby worsening symptoms. 

Maintaining a balance between Th1 and Th2 immunological responses is paramount to healthy immune functionality.


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Pune, India